This report focuses on the impact of digital conversion on jobs and productivity. It was designed to inform the discussion of innovation ministers at the summit in 2018 as part of the component “how technologies simplify our lives”: “technologies are the future”.
It complements the discussion paper on future work prepared by the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development in support of a parallel meeting of ministers responsible for work and employment at the summit, which will seek to specifically examine how policies and practices designed for twentieth-century jobs must be adapted to provide fair and beneficial employment opportunities for all in the future.
The Summit plays an important role in raising awareness of the ongoing transformations and sharing experiences on how to best use opportunities for effective problem solving. Such an exchange can focus on policy development, implementation and evaluation. It can help and act as a clearinghouse for disseminating best practices and evidence-based practices.
In addition to exchanging information, the summit can facilitate cooperation in resolving general issues of an international character. Four issues have increased in the policy agenda:
– ensuring that economies and societies make the most of transforming technologies, including the growing importance of data;
– establish a common approach to the use of artificial intelligence (AI);
– encourage inclusive innovation; and
– prepare for future work.
In addition, there is an urgent need to improve the measurement of digital conversion in order to gather evidence to make better decisions on these four policy issues. The OECD is ready to contribute to the discussions at the summit, promote dialogue with stakeholders and support evidence-based policy implementation in these areas. Key messages from the report are outlined below.
How technologies simplify our lives. The impact of transformational technologies on the economy and society.
A large-scale digital transformation is currently underway, affecting all sectors of the economy. This transformation is characterized by almost universal connectivity and the ubiquity of computing and is based on the production and use of huge amounts of data.
This transformation has a positive effect on the productivity of many companies, but has not yet led to an improvement in productivity growth for the economy as a whole. More significant consequences may be associated with strategic efforts to stimulate the wider dissemination of digital technology among all societies, especially small and medium enterprises (SMEs); increased investment in critical additional assets, such as enterprise-level skills development, organizational change, and process innovation; as well as support for other structural changes that support the growth of new digital business models and businesses.
A wide range of technological changes creates great uncertainty about their direction and future consequences. Indeed, predictions regarding the process schedule are often inaccurate, and reassessment of short-term impacts is common.
Artificial Intelligence. In recent years, the international debate about artificial intelligence has intensified significantly. ICTs agreed on the need to promote the introduction of new technologies, including AI, and to ensure that the political framework takes into account the broad economic and social benefits of these technologies as they are developed.
In addition, they reiterated the need for increased information exchange and discussion, including on issues of confidentiality, transparency and accountability, ethics, job creation and cybersecurity. to better understand the potential overall impact of AI technologies on society and the economy and explore various multilateral approaches to AI policy and regulation. Countries agreed to continue to lead efforts to create socially beneficial AI with support.
A recent study shows that AI is not limited to the digital world, and that important patenting activities are taking place in other sectors, such as transportation and engineering, and are likely to expand the range of services such as healthcare and finance. However, policies will be needed in many areas to take advantage of AI. Education and training systems will need to be redesigned so that young people and adults in the workplace possess the necessary skills to work in an artificial intelligence environment.